AskDefine | Define crystal

Dictionary Definition

crystal

Noun

1 a solid formed by the solidification of a chemical and having a highly regular atomic structure
2 a crystalline element used as a component in various electronic devices
3 a rock formed by the solidification of a substance; has regularly repeating internal structure; external plane faces [syn: crystallization]
4 colorless glass made of almost pure silica [syn: quartz glass, quartz, vitreous silica, lechatelierite]
5 glassware made of quartz
6 a protective cover that protects the face of a watch [syn: watch crystal, watch glass]

User Contributed Dictionary

see Crystal

English

Pronunciation

  • krĭsʹtəl, /ˈkrɪstəl/, /"krIst@l/

Etymology

From cristal 'clear ice/mineral', from cristal, from crystallum 'crystal, ice', from Ancient Greek κργσταλλοσ (krystallos) 'ice', from κργοσ (kryos) 'frost'; from the Proto-Indo-European base kru(s)-, meaning hard, hard outer surface.

Noun

  1. A solid (mineral quartz or otherwise) composed of an array of atoms possessing long-range order and arranged in a pattern which is periodic in three dimensions.
  2. A piece of glimmering, shining mineral resembling ice or glass.
  3. A fine type of glassware, or the material used to make it.

Synonyms

Antonyms

Translations

array of atoms
  • Arabic "قريس (QRYS, qarees) or قريت(QRYT, qareet)" from Sanskrit.
  • Chinese:
    Mandarin: (jiéjīng)
  • Czech: krystal
  • Dutch: kristal
  • Finnish: kide
  • French: cristal
  • German: Kristall
  • Greek: κρύσταλλος (krýstallos)
  • Hebrew: גביש
  • Hungarian: kristály
  • Italian: cristallo
  • Japanese: 結晶 (けっしょう, kesshō)
  • Latvian: kristāls
  • Norwegian: krystall
  • Polish: kryształ
  • Portuguese: cristal
  • Russian: кристалл
  • Serbian: ledac
  • Slovene: kristal
  • Spanish: cristal
  • Swedish: kristall
  • Vietnamese: tinh thể
mineral
glassware

References

Extensive Definition

In chemistry, mineralogy, and materials science, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.
The word crystal is a loan from the ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), which had the same meaning, but according to the ancient understanding of crystal. At root it means anything congealed by freezing, such as ice. The word once referred particularly to quartz, or "rock crystal". Most metals encountered in everyday life are polycrystals. Crystals are often symmetrically intergrown to form crystal twins.

Crystal structure

The process of forming a crystaline struture from a fluid or from materials dissolved in the fluid is often referred to as crystalization. In the ancient example referenced by the root meaning of the word crystal, water being cooled undergoes a phase change from liquid to solid beginning with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline struture. The physical properties of the ice depend on the size and arrangement of the individual crystals, or grains, and the same may be said of metals solidifying from a molten state.
Which crystal structure the fluid will form depends on the chemistry of the fluid, the conditions under which it is being solidified, and also on the ambient pressure. While the cooling process usually results in the generation of a crystalline material, under certain conditions, the fluid may be frozen in a noncrystalline state. In most cases, this involves cooling the fluid so rapidly that atoms cannot travel to their lattice sites before they lose mobility. A noncrystalline material, which has no long-range order, is called an amorphous, vitreous, or glassy material. It is also often referred to as an amorphous solid, although there are distinct differences between solids and glasses: most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion. For this reason, many scientists consider glassy materials to be viscous liquids rather than solids, although this is a controversial topic. details glass
Crystalline structures occur in all classes of materials, with all types of chemical bonds. Almost all metal exists in a polycrystalline state; amorphous or single-crystal metals must be produced synthetically, often with great difficulty. Ionically bonded crystals can form upon solidification of salts, either from a molten fluid or when it condenses from a solution. Covalently bonded crystals are also very common, notable examples being diamond, silica, and graphite. Polymer materials generally will form crystalline regions, but the lengths of the molecules usually prevent complete crystallization. Weak Van der Waals forces can also play a role in a crystal structure; for example, this type of bonding loosely holds together the hexagonal-patterned sheets in graphite.
Most crystalline materials have a variety of crystallographic defects. The types and structures of these defects can have a profound effect on the properties of the materials.

Other meanings and characteristics

Since the initial discovery of crystal-like individual arrays of atoms that are not regularly repeated, made in 1982 by Dan Shechtman, the acceptance of the concept and the word quasicrystal have led the International Union of Crystallography to redefine the term crystal to mean "any solid having an essentially discrete diffraction diagram", thereby shifting the essential attribute of crystallinity from position space to Fourier space. Within the family of crystals one distinguishes between traditional crystals, which are periodic, or repeating, at the atomic scale, and aperiodic crystals which are not. This broader definition adopted in 1996 reflects the current understanding that microscopic periodicity is a sufficient but not a necessary condition for crystals.,
While the term "crystal" has a precise meaning within materials science and solid-state physics, colloquially "crystal" refers to solid objects that exhibit well-defined and often pleasing geometric shapes. In this sense of the word, many types of crystals are found in nature. The shape of these crystals is dependent on the types of molecular bonds between the atoms to determine the structure, as well as on the conditions under which they formed. Snowflakes, diamonds, and common salt are common examples of crystals.
Some crystalline materials may exhibit special electrical properties such as the ferroelectric effect or the piezoelectric effect. Additionally, light passing through a crystal is often refracted or bent in different directions, producing an array of colors; crystal optics is the study of these effects. In periodic dielectric structures a range of unique optical properties can be expected as seen in photonic crystals.
Crystallography is the scientific study of crystals and crystal formation.

Crystalline rocks

Inorganic matter, if free to take that physical state in which it is most stable, always tends to crystallize. Crystalline rock masses have consolidated from aqueous solution or from molten magma. The vast majority of igneous rocks belong to this group and the degree of crystallization depends primarily on the conditions under which they solidified. Such rocks as granite, which have cooled very slowly and under great pressures, have completely crystallized, but many lavas were poured out at the surface and cooled very rapidly; in this latter group a small amount of amorphous or glassy matter is frequent. Other crystalline rocks, the evaporites such as rock salt, gypsum and some limestones have been deposited from aqueous solution, mostly owing to evaporation in arid climates. Still another group, the metamorphic rocks which includes the marbles, mica-schists and quartzites; are recrystallized, that is to say, they were at first fragmental rocks, like limestone, shale and sandstone and have never been in a molten condition nor entirely in solution. The high temperature and pressure conditions of metamorphism have acted on them erasing their original structures, and inducing recrystallization in the solid state.

See also

crystal in Arabic: بلورة
crystal in Bulgarian: Кристал
crystal in Catalan: Cristall
crystal in Czech: Krystal
crystal in Danish: Krystal
crystal in German: Kristall
crystal in Estonian: Kristall
crystal in Modern Greek (1453-): Κρύσταλλος
crystal in Spanish: Cristal
crystal in Esperanto: Kristalo
crystal in Persian: بلور
crystal in French: Cristal
crystal in Korean: 결정
crystal in Croatian: Kristal
crystal in Ido: Kristalo
crystal in Indonesian: Kristal
crystal in Italian: Cristallo
crystal in Hebrew: גביש
crystal in Latin: Crystallum
crystal in Latvian: Kristāls
crystal in Lithuanian: Kristalas
crystal in Macedonian: Кристал
crystal in Dutch: Kristal (natuurwetenschappen)
crystal in Japanese: 結晶
crystal in Norwegian Nynorsk: Krystall
crystal in Uighur: كىرىستلا
crystal in Polish: Ciało krystaliczne
crystal in Portuguese: Cristal
crystal in Russian: Кристаллы
crystal in Slovenian: Kristal
crystal in Serbian: Кристал
crystal in Finnish: Kiteinen aine
crystal in Swedish: Kristall
crystal in Tamil: படிகம்
crystal in Thai: ผลึก
crystal in Vietnamese: Tinh thể
crystal in Chinese: 晶体
crystal in Yiddish: קריסטאל

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

Benzedrine, Benzedrine pill, C, Dexamyl, Dexamyl pill, Dexedrine, Dexedrine pill, Methedrine, amphetamine, amphetamine sulfate, avalanche, blizzard, clear, clear as crystal, clear-cut, cocaine, coke, craggy, crystal-clear, crystalline, dextroamphetamine sulfate, diaphane, diaphanous, driven snow, filmy, flake, flurry, football, gauzy, gem, gem stone, gossamer, gossamery, granular snow, gravelly, gritty, heart, igloo, jolly bean, lapideous, light-pervious, limpid, lithoid, lithoidal, lucent, lucid, luminous, mantle of snow, methamphetamine hydrochloride, mogul, monolithic, nonopaque, pebbled, pebbly, peekaboo, pellucid, pep pill, porphyritic, precious stone, purple heart, revealing, rock-ribbed, rock-strewn, rock-studded, rocklike, rocky, sandy, see-through, semiprecious stone, sheer, shingled, shingly, slosh, slush, snow, snow banner, snow bed, snow blanket, snow blast, snow fence, snow flurry, snow roller, snow slush, snow squall, snow wreath, snow-crystal, snowball, snowbank, snowbridge, snowcap, snowdrift, snowfall, snowfield, snowflake, snowland, snowman, snowscape, snowshed, snowslide, snowslip, snowstorm, speed, stimulant, stone, stonelike, stony, thin, trachytic, translucent, transparent, transpicuous, unclouded, upper, wet snow
Privacy Policy, About Us, Terms and Conditions, Contact Us
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
Material from Wikipedia, Wiktionary, Dict
Valid HTML 4.01 Strict, Valid CSS Level 2.1